artificial intelligence in dentistry, global ethical considerations, data protection laws


Reviewing how AI literature should be assessed before discussing current published literature and how AI is currently being used in practice is beneficial. While dentists and allied dental healthcare professionals receive training on evaluating the quality of scientific literature generally, AI studies are relatively new and only some dental professionals have received formal education regarding the evaluation of an AI-related publication.2 It is unclear how many reviewers for traditional dental journals have an appropriate level of experience to adjudicate the effectiveness of an AI submission; some meta-analytic studies suggest that a significant number of reported AI studies in dentistry have issues with bias, reproducibility, and lack reporting of criteria necessary for evaluating the validity of the study.3 Establishing the quality of an AI publication involves special considerations relative to more conventional (e.g., materials- or device-based) studies.